||BASIC DIGITAL COMPUTER ELEMENTS AND LOGIC CIRCUITS: Practical representation and basic design principles of logic gates (DTL DCTL, TTL etc) and memory elements. Fan-in and fan-out. Common logic ICs: AND OR NAND NOR XOR XNOR and NOT. Combinational logic circuits. Multiplexers, comparators, half-adder and full-adder. Design with NAND/NOR. Multiple output circuits. Noise in combinational circuits.
CLOCK GENERATION CIRCUITS: Design and analysis of multivibrators. Schmidt trigger circuit and time-base generators using discrete transistors and digital ICs. Interfacing of logic families.
MSI CIRCUITS: Different scales of integration. Multiple output circuits. Design of MSI circuits..Speed constraints. Noise in MSI circuits.
SEQUENTIAL DIGITAL CIRCUITS: Output function of sequential circuits. Mealy-Moore circuits. Flip-flops (SR JK. T and D). Counters: Binary, Modulo-N, up-down. Registers: Input/output circuits. Synchronous circuits: clocking, clock rate, skew. Fundamentals of sequential finite state machines. Introduction to the design of sequential systems. Algorithmic state machines. Programmable logic arrays (FPGA etc).